8 Wastes in Mobile App Development to be Avoided

Mobile App Development is a huge task. It consists of different phases, but the real work starts after releasing the first version of the app. Releasing the updates is when different problems come up, and developers ask for DOWNTIME from the client. DOWNTIME is basically an acronym used to describe wastes of Mobile App development. Now, you must be wondering what are these wastes. Well, they consist of the following- Defects, Overproduction, Waiting, Non-utilized talent, Transportation, Inventory, Motion, and Excess Processing. They are basically referred to as wastes because they result in longer development cycles, affects the quality of the product, and increase project risk. In this article, we are going to discuss what they are, why and how they happen, and how you can avoid them.
  1. Defects

It is the responsibility of production team. The defects occur due to problems in the code that produce incorrect or unexpected output. They affect the project velocity and the team has to put extra time, resources, and money to fix them. These defects generally arise due to poor understanding, mismanagement, lack of engineering and technical capabilities, etc. Image result for mobile app defects
How to avoid them?
Bug reduction is inherently built-in to the agile squad methodology. Developers has to do code reviews which improve the quality of code, and it ultimately enhances the product quality. Rather than carrying out the testing at the end, you should start it during development. It leads to fewer defects when items are pushed to QA.
  1. Overproduction

It means the team is producing more than the desired outcome. In an app development, extra features or functionalities has to be added in the next update. It is the result of the inefficient planning process and inability to prioritize the work. Image result for overproduction mobile app
How to avoid it?
The best way to eliminate overproduction is by using rolling-wave. It includes delaying product decisions until you are in the best place to make them. Never build features or functionalities that are unnecessary. Rolling wave allows flexibility, reduces risk, increases efficiency, and ultimately results in better quality products.
  1. Waiting
It includes any factor that delays the mobile app development or delivery. It could be waiting for information, the delay from client’s side, inaccurate data or planning, gap in communication, external factors including technical problems. Image result for time waste during mobile app development
How to avoid it?
You need to apply a squad-based agile approach for reducing delays in development. Make a plan with client side, always put together the resources, rather than being dependent on the third party try to solve the issue by yourself. Break up the development cycle between the team and reduce dependencies.
  1. Non-Utilized Talent

You cannot put wrong skill set in a big project, it would definitely turn out to be a huge disaster. It occurs when project team fails to take advantage of wide range of talents, skills, ideas, and capabilities and put the wrong ones in tasks. Image result for time waste during mobile app development
How to avoid it?
Agile principles are designed to avoid the waste, but always capitalize on internal employee and know their strengths and weakness. A good development team includes product owners, developers, QA, designers, etc.– to inform the direction and possibilities of the product.
  1. Transportation

Transportation becomes a problem when you have a deficiency in transferring knowledge. This waste is also commonly described as relearning; one member of the team hands off code/tasks/etc. to another team member who then needs to re-learn what the first team member already knows. Image result for time waste during mobile app development
How to avoid it?
The team should share their knowledge and understanding in all aspects of the project. This reduces knowledge gap, communication gap, and eliminate many defects in future.  
  1. Inventory

Inventory mean the work that can be re-used, the work that has been partially done ineffectively based on project parameters. It affects project velocity and can result in budget inflation. The common causes are waiting, incomplete story information/misunderstanding of the story, dependencies between stories, and improper prioritization. Image result for technology used in mobile application development
How to avoid this?
Encourage knowledge transfer, make sure that the whole team understands the purpose and functionality of the project. As a result, the squad-based development offers predictable velocity, minimizes inventory, and mitigates budgetary risk.
  1. Excess Processing

It is similar to overproduction but is created when effort/time/resources are spent producing something that doesn’t add value to the project. It is commonly referred to gold plating. Excess processing is similar to overproduction, but is created when effort/time/resources are spent producing something that doesn’t add value; typically, unnecessary bells and whistles. It’s commonly referred to as gold plating. Image result for technology used in mobile application development
How to avoid it?
Understand the product, avoid the iterative process, and each release should aim toward better functionality. Since the criteria for the viable product is the goal.
The ultimate goal of discussing these things is to reduce the wastes. It makes your product better, your performance faster and your team reliable. The developer has to keep a lot of things in mind to make the product better. Rather than dividing your attention, give time to one feature at time, it would definitely bring out a better solution and your mobile app would turn out to be better.

Essential Rules of UI Design

In the era of technical advancement, we focus too much on design. We hardly realize that functionality is as important as designing. If you are also planning to develop and designing an app, website, or software, just keep in mind that a balance of designing and functionality will be the reason for your success. But designing itself has a world of its own. We almost forget the essentials in order to achieve the best. The evolution in designing is constant, and there is always something new to learn. One should focus on bringing out function and aesthetic at once. And to stay on the top of the game, here are essentials you have to follow-

1. Focus on Usability

One single design would never work in different type of devices. With the downfall in desktop usage, a designer has to be very careful while designing UI. So, a designer is supposed to make UI that fits in all the screen sizes. Image result for focus on usability ui In the past, developers were highly concentrated on creating a good UI for desktop. But mobile usage has increased in 2014. So, it is important to pay attention on mobile UI and making responsive designs which increases user engagement.

2. Be clear

Image result for clear ui Users nowadays don’t have enough time to pay their full attention to one task. So, the designer is required to keep the design simple and easy to understand. Use simple language, so that they can understand it all at once. They don’t have to do a second guess. Avoid using technical terms and focus on a familiar language and font style. Make call-to-action as easy as possible.

3. Prevent errors

Image result for human errors Humans are prone to make mistakes, but if you make mistakes on websites, they would become roadblocks to your visitors. If something goes wrong while loading a page, it distracts the customer. When designing, a designer should focus on eliminating the possible errors as well. Though this problem is 80% solved during the testing phase, a designer should try to rectify those errors in advance.

4. Consistent interface

Image result for consistent user interface Designing consistency is important as it makes UI & UX better. Here, consistency refers to making things continuous, predictable, and within expectation. Try not to surprise the customer with unexpected results. It make users second guess their decision, and they ultimately move on to the next best option. Ensure consistency of processes, functionality, appearance, and terminology.

5. Context

Image result for context user interface If you are wondering what context is, here is the answer- “Context is how we are connecting new ideas together with the old ones, building relationships and meaning in our world”. You have to apply contextual design in your UI. It could be the location-based, time-sensitive and situation-based design of a website or the app so that it can deliver the most relevant data. Context is a key to human relationships and also a basic element of designing.

6. Defaults

Image result for default actions in UI Customizing things is what every designer loves. It allows customizing interfaces, wallpapers, ringtones, etc. Though people don’t bother so much about it, most devices and other consumer electronics purchased almost never get changed. People generally don’t fix you phone to factory set, until it is the only option. And this fact means designer should make sure that the default setting should be applicable to a large batch of users.

7. Guided Actions

Image result for guided actions in app You should count ‘guided actions’ as a core rule of designing. When you are designing an interface, always make sure that you tell your user what has to be done. They don’t take actions unless they are asked to. That is what we call ‘Call-to-Action’ tactic. If you know the purpose of your app, it would be the easiest task for you. Every business requires an action from the customer, so ensure that your user knows what they have to do next.

8. Feedback

Image result for feedback in app Whether you have a small business or a full-fledged firm, user satisfaction is an important thing. A feedback basically helps you to know what could be done to grow your business, or how to make an app or website better. It could be as simple as running a survey or adding a ‘Complete’ notification once a form is submitted. The system should be able to offer feedback that is relevant, fitting in importance and urgency, comprehensive and sensible and contextual.


Designing is an art, and you will grow only if you know how to experiment. But always ensure that you are not missing out on the smaller things to achieve bigger things. It could cause you a long term harm. Experimentation is the key become better with a dash of basics.

Mobile App Designing Principles

Business and technology go hand-in-hand now. The more technical advanced you are, the more business you would be able to get. Gone is the time when only a few people had mobile phones. Now, most of the people have mobile phones, and they are the ones who make or break your business. And this is the reason, mobile app development market is on the top. Mobile apps are the source by which user gets software in their hands and form their relationships with businesses. Mobile_App_UX_Principles_cove_A4_final But there are some ground rules or principles for mobile app designing. You cannot develop and design a random mobile app, and expect it to be successful. Designing and development should have a balance. And for this purpose, you need to know about these core principles-

1. Purpose of the app

Image result for mobile app designing principles Users should understand the purpose of the app right from the moment they see the name of the app. It should be clear from its name, description, UX, etc. In short, each and every aspect of the app should be apt. No matter what is its purpose, it should focus on a goal, and every aspect should have the power to engage the user.

2. Revenue mode

Well, most of the people think that high rank and most number of downloads can bring the money to the owner, but unfortunately it is absolutely wrong. Rank and numbers definitely bring some money, but it should not be the primary way to earn. It is almost impossible to earn money without a clear strategy. Though making money should not be the sole purpose of the app, but it should be on your list. The only way to make a good revenue model is by knowing your app properly.

3. UX, Color, UI

Image result for mobile ui and ux design The first thing that attracts a user to your app is its appearance. Poor UX can convert your potential customer into never returning user. The purpose of downloading an app is to solve a particular problem, and if your app is clumsy, it would have a major negative impact on the customer. The color psychology in design and commercial space is a topic that predates the digital age but its rules are timeless. The appearance of the app has to be on point.

4. Navigation or search

Image result for mobile app designing principles If it is difficult to find out one thing in your app, you will probably lose 60% of your customers due to this. Navigation is one of the most important aspects of designing a good app. If the app has a larger than normal set of functions or content, there should be a convenient search bar.

5. Well defined data structure and flow

Image result for we defined data flow and structure Mobile phones are the most powerful as compared to any other device, but they have certain restrictions such as processing speed and bandwidth. The designer must pay attention to the data flow of the app. There is no reason to add unnecessary information and the user doesn’t have enough patience to sit and wait for the app to respond.

6. Conversions

Image result for mobile app conversion This principle is majorly targeted for e-commerce apps. An e-commerce app is considered successful if it can convert a user into a customer. There are few things that need to be present in an e-commerce app for better conversion rates-
  • provide the previous search and purchase information,
  • allow user reviews to be viewed and filtered,
  • enable comparison shopping features,
  • provide multiple third-party payment options
  • make it easy to add and manage payment methods.

7. Stats & Analytics

Image result for stats and analytics of mobile app Tracking and analyzing is definitely the most important thing. How would you know whether your app is successful or not? How would you know what should be done to make it better? Well, the answer is by analyzing the data and information. You will get to know where, when, and how a user is engaging with our apps.

8. Product roadmap and upgrade model

Image result for product roadmap Roadmap and upgrade model are pretty much related to each other. Developing an app is one thing, but never updating it would surely ruin your business and work model. Analysis and product statistics basically give you an idea about what can be done to make your app better. But you should also decide and strategize what you are going to do next.
And the most important part of the designing and developing a successful app is “do one thing, and do it well”. Research, analyze, understand and then develop the app. If you are outsourcing your app development, then make sure to give the developer every possible thing to get good results.  

SugarCRM vs vTiger- Which on Would You Choose?

There are numerous open source CRM available in the market. It is up to you which one suits you the best. In this article, we will be looking into the features, pros, and cons of different open source CRM. SugarCRM and vTiger are the most popular CRMs. crm sugar vtuger Generally, people confuse the word open source with free. Open source means the code is openly available for users to modify and adapt while you have to buy a premium version to avail further services. Open doesn’t necessarily mean free.

Let’s first take a look at SugarCRM

SugarCRM is being used from a long time by a community of talented developers all over the world. It has an enterprise edition available which is hosted by Sugar with additional functionality. One can download and install it on their own server. The process is not too difficult, a person with decent technical knowledge could do it within 30 minutes. Related image


There are several reasons why it is being used abundantly-
  • It is flexible as compared to other open source CRMs. There are some CRMs that are built with some main use-cases in mind but doesn’t necessarily adapt for organizations that need a good amount of flexibility.
  • Its studio builder is very smooth. It has a drag and drop interface to easily customize different screens. It also has amazing access control to provide access to some user and constricting other users to a tailored view.
  • The best part is reporting dashboard as every user can have different view according to their specific needs.


  • Well, there are no cons as such, the only thing which bothers people now is its enterprise version. There is no community support which means there is no community edition. An enterprise has to buy a premium edition after completing its trial period.

Let’s take a look at vTiger.

Another hugely used open source CRM is vTiger, though it is built with the code used in SugarCRM. It has many tools that make it easy for users to opt-in for certain marketing offers and information becomes populated in the CRM. Related image


  • Better marketing tools for populating the information in CRM. It is easy for users to opt-in.
  • Well-developed and easy-to-use management features as compared to other CRMs.
  • A good forefront which makes it easy for the users to work on it. In many systems, the CRM project management feature tends to be a bit overlooked.


  • UI needs improvements as it has a flat design which doesn’t look so great.
  • vTiger’s development community is not as active as Sugar’s community.

Summing up

Let us sum things up to make it easy for you to decide which one is better for you-
  • vTiger is entirely free and depends on volunteer work while SugarCRM has a paid version.
  • SugarCRM has more advanced functionalities that can be altered according to organization’s size.
  • vTiger loads faster may due to less complicated functionality, but it really saves time.
  • Though vTiger is easy to use, SugarCRM compensates it with customizable user interface.
  • Though both applications are considered to have tricky upgrade process, vTiger is still considered easier one.
So, these two CRMs are most widely used. We also work on these two. Our consulting services help clients achieve high performance by efficiently anticipating, meeting and exceeding their customers’ expectations.

A Guide to Biggest Challenges in Mobile App Development

Challenges are the major part of development. As the mobile app development market is rapidly growing, it has raised users expectations. However, developing a mobile app has issues and challenges. Somehow, it has become necessary for the developers to know what would be the best for their target audience. In this article, we will try to give an overview of the challenges faced by developers while developing applications.

#1 Developing for client keeping users in mind

Image result for mobile app development When it comes to development, the developers always have dual pressure. At one side, they have to develop the app according to client’s requirement; while on other, they have to keep the end user in mind. And if you want to develop an app to stand out from the crowd, you have to include intuitive design, usable features, and graphics for an amazing user experience.

#2 Cross-platform apps

Image result for cross platform apps Neither we are living in 90s, and nor do we work on a single operating system anymore; so developing apps according to the standard device is no more a good idea. There are different devices with varying screen sizes, so developers have to to keep this thing in mind while developing an app. Developers should adopt a responsive design which is adjustable according to different screen sizes.

#3 Interactive apps

Image result for interactive apps Developing an app and designing an app are two completely different things. And you have to keep the user interaction in mind. An interactive app is more likely to be successful than a non-interactive app. But it could be a big challenge during the designing phase.

#4 Involving end user

Image result for involving end user As I said, the developer has to think about the client and the end user as well. So, it is important to connect with customers and check their feedback for important modifications. The purpose of an app is to make the end user comfortable and for this mobile app should be interactive.

#5 Battery consumption and performance

Image result for battery consumption and performance These factors play a vital role in app development. A good app is the one that consumes less battery without compromising the performance. So, first, the developers have to be clear and confident about their app. In order to do so, you should launch a beta version of the app first, so that the performance and battery issue can be solved.

#6 User experience

Image result for app user experience A successful app is the one which is easy to use and understand. Thus, a developer should keep in mind to keep it simple. There should be user manual or instructions to use it. In short, keeping it simple doesn’t mean compromising on the quality, but it means to make it easy to understand.

#7 Marketing the app

Image result for mobile app marketing Though it is not a developers task, it should be taken into consideration. Marketing turns out to be the biggest challenge, after all. A successful app is a combination of 70% marketing and 30% development. So, one should look for the right tools as well as platforms that can help you in marketing.


Overall, a mobile app is a good source of revenue, but it requires a lot of attention to survive in this highly competitive marketplace. So, the developer should work toward making it successful from the very first day to make sure the success of the app.

Top 5 Client/ Server ERP solutions

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) has become  a major component of organizations. It is widely used to increase efficiency and productivity of the company. It helps the companies to manage resources and monitor them on a real-time basis. The global and competitive environment between companies has made it necessary for companies to have some sort of ERP in place. Let us check out the top 5 ERP solutions available in the market-
  1. Epicor

Image result for epicor It has been established in 1972 and has been in the market for a very long time. The company has introduced many reputable products, and has over 20,000 customers in 140 countries all over the world. They have high good value added reseller channel and provides strong industry solutions. The best part about the company is its pool of ERP consultants and products offered by the company are low to moderately price.
  1. Infor

Image result for infor It is the 3rd largest company in the ERP market which was found in 2002. It has a major role in introducing enterprise software for financial systems, supply-chain management and customer relationship management. They have more than 70,000 customers all over the world. The company is known to provide vertical ERP solutions and boast key strength in manufacturing solution. They provide ERP solutions for complex and non-continuous manufacturing. Solutions provided by the company are low to moderate in price.
  1. Microsoft

Image result for microsoft erp With 83,000 world-wide customers, Microsoft has a strong presence in Small Medium Business segment and mid-market. Microsoft ERP products are only sold value through re-seller. You can make data-driven decisions with a complete set of ERP tools to provide global visibility, scalability, and digital intelligence.
  1. Oracle

Image result for oracle erp It is 2nd in the ERP market and number 1 in CRM market. The company has over 30 years of experience in the market. The products offered by them has flexible modules and open for customization. They are in high price band.
  1. SAP

Image result for sap erp It is the largest player in the ERP market. They have over 108 functional modules being pioneer in the industry. The products offered by the company are in high-price band.  

Small Market Business Leader

It is dominated by Microsoft ERP products. The company has gained some acquired customers in recent past which has  added value to its ERP portfolio.

Middle Market Leaders

Epicor and Infor are strong players in middle market. Epicor is robust in financial, hospitality, .retail, etc. sectors.

Global Companies and Large Enterprises

SAP is the leader of this market as it provides accounting solution software, which tightly integrate all major departments throughout the company. Oracle is in acquisition of PeoplSoft has came out as a strong force in ERP market.


The ERP solution is evolving rapidly. Most of the organizations use them for efficiency in their work. Apart from the top five, the open source ERPs are yet to prove themselves as a replacement or commercial ERP applications. The market of ERPs is the future of computing.

What Should be Your First Priority- Content or Design?

Hiring an agency to make a website for your business is a tough task. It comes with a lot of questions, and the best way to answer these questions you need to prioritize the events. You can do it easily if you are somewhat related to technology. If you have knowledge of coding, programming or the web designing then it would be easy for you to build it yourself, but everyone does not have the luxury of that knowledge. main-qimg-e74dc8b379ccfe3c34e12243acd127f0-c So, you are left with only one option which means hiring a company to do it. It could be divided into two parts- content and designing. Designing have an unlimited option- from swirly animations, smooth java, embedded flash plug-ins and parallax scrolling, the use of white space making everything seem smarter and customized fonts and shades- that adds the WOW factor to the website. Image result for content vs design But if your content is not up to the mark, a good design would be nothing. Designing attract the eyes, but content keeps the user engaged.  In short, content is equally important as the designing. And here is why you should give equal importance to the content.

#1 Design would be expensive

Image result for content vs design Whether you are a small enterprise or a full-fledged firm, the budget is always an important factor. Starting designing before having the content in hand could increase the cost of designing as the design will be vast and artistic, not catered to your content or target audience as such. Yes, it would look amazing, but you cannot go out of budget just because you have not prioritized the activities. There are other possibilities as well which can turn out to be a disaster for your company.

#2 Design without content is a hazard

Image result for content not found Directly jumping into the design most of the time gives bad results. Many designers and agencies themselves jump into selecting templates and pattern that would be right for you without giving content a second thought. It makes content writer’s work difficult, they would have to twist and turn their content as per the design, which ultimately affects your business.

#3 It becomes chaotic

Image result for chaotic website Neither the designer have the idea about the content, nor do the writers have any idea about the design, both parties get confused that makes the situation chaotic. The design team would have no idea about choosing the best design, and the content team would also be confused about writing content that fits the design. You would get the best results only if both the things would go hand-in-hand.


So after going through all the points, you must have an idea about which one is the best option. The bottom line is you need a smooth, beautiful, and up-to-date website that can engage the users. Both of the things are important and should go hand-in-hand. The best possible way to do so is to let the teams discuss what would be the best thing to do. Let the team design the flow rather than making decisions yourself. So that you can have the desired result. The designing and content team are the best decision makers for the same.

Are Mobile Apps Helpful for Business?

Smartphones have brought us to a point where we rely on mobile applications for our daily needs. We are either consumers or producers, and both of them need mobile applications. Consumers to shop, producers to sell. If you think that mobile apps are meant only for the big brands, then you are absolutely wrong. Even the smallest business and companies should follow up the trend of being mobile friendly. Does-My-Business-Really-Need-a-Mobile-App-1Does an application sound right for your business? Everyone who owns a business asks this question before developing a mobile app for their business. If you come up with no, then you might need to do some study. The fact is that these applications work effectively for small enterprises, although they are not suitable for everyone.

How does mobile app help your business?

#1 It makes you noticeable to the customers

The customers like what they see, so you have to make something better out of your business. It can convert your potential customer into your regular customer. Having a mobile application will definitely be a benefit to your business. Image result for do my business need mobile app

#2 Stand ahead in the competition

If your competitors have their online profile and you don’t, then you are way too slow. In order to come back into the competition, you need to get to their level. In order to stand out from the crowd, your mobile app design and services have to be out-of-the-box. Image result for stand ahead in competition with mobile app

#3 Cost effective advertising and marketing

Marketing of any product, services, activities, etc. come out as spending a good amount. Apps speak for themselves. Although you would need to do marketing and advertising for your product, it would be easier than regular marketing. Image result for cost effective marketing

#4 Give value to customer

Image result for give value to your customer Rather than staying at one location, let your customers take you all around with them. An app could be a better way to keep your customers in touch. It makes them feel valuable, and it would definitely turn a potential customer into a sure fit.
These few things can make a lot of difference in your companies sales and business. So, if you are looking for something bigger and better, you can turn around your business.    

Reasons Why Infographics Are Important in Content Marketing

Content is the king of the digital age,’ you must have heard these words many times. But have you wondered if everyone likes to read or not? I bet, you didn’t give it much thought. Well, we did. Content is definitely important, but content alone cannot do everything. Amazing visuals like pictures, infographics, videos, etc. are also important with good content. One needs to understand the importance of both things. Let us talk about an important aspect of the content market- Infographics- and why they are important.

What are infographics?

Image result for infographics Infographics are visually compelling medium to communicate with a viewer. They are a mixture of writing, design, and analysis that are ideal for an age of big data. Taking a data and presenting it in a visual shorthand is the process of making infographics. Now, the question is why is important if we already have content? Let us discuss the reasons why infographics are important in content marketing-

#1 Easily Scanned and Viewed

According to a research, our brain captures 90% of the information visually. Human beings are highly visual, they capture most of the information which comes visually. Plus, infographics are easy to view and understand which makes them important.

#2 Attractive and captivating

People love facts, figures, numbers, and statistics. The best way to compel a user is by adding some images and graphics to the stats and numbers. People may love reading but adding some images and graphics would definitely attract them more. inforgraphics content marketing enbake

#3 Worldwide Coverage

Online publishing is now visible globally at the push of a button.  Infographics being local print media are easily distributable and can reach a higher number of people.

#4 Increases Traffic

A good and captivating infographic would drive more traffic to your website. They are easier to share and send, so they draw more people traffic. Image result for infographics increase traffic

#5  Viral Capabilities

They are virally more capable. They have the capacity to be shared on social media platforms easily, and that is why they become viral as compared to ordinary text content.

#6 Benefits Search Engine Optimisation

The viral nature of infographics makes them easy to crawl on search engines. Google will index your site higher which increases your rank as well. Image result for infographics help seo

#7 Portable (Embeddable)

When you publish an infographic, the code to put it in a WordPress blog or website is provided as an embeddable code. This creates a link between your website and theirs.

#8 Brand Awareness

As we know infographics are more attractive, embedding your logo in them creates “Brand Awareness”. They are a powerful source of making your brand recognizable. Image result for infographics increases brand awareness The real challenge with infographic is creating them. One needs to be creative, smart, and intelligent to make a good infographic. Though there are new tools and platforms that make this task easier such as visual.ly and statsilk.com. You can develop them with help of tools as well.   *Note: We don’t have any copyright on any of the infographics.

Ruby Metaprogramming

Ruby is definitely one of the most widely used languages nowadays. And if you are also working on Ruby, you must have heard the word ‘metaprogramming’. Even if you have used metaprogramming, there are chances that you didn’t understand it completely. Metaprogramming is an important concept of Ruby, and you need to understand the usefulness of this concept. the-black-magic-of-ruby-metaprogramming-1-638

What is ‘metaprogramming’?

It is a technique in which the written code writes itself, you can say programming of programming. This might sound confusing, but it is pretty simple to understand and work with. It helps you to add, edit, or modify the code while it is running. It can be used to create new methods or delete the existing ones. One can also reopen or modify existing classes, catch methods that do not exist. Repetitive coding can also be avoided to keep your program DRY.
Also Read-Capybara Basics For Automated testing of Ruby on Rails Application

How ‘Ruby‘ calls methods?

To understand the concept and scope of metaprogramming, it is important to understand how Ruby find a method when it is called. When a method is called in Ruby, it located that method within the code including the inheritance chain.
  1. class Employee
  2.  def test
  3.    “hello”
  4.  end
  5. end
  • charlie_will = Employee.new
  • charlie_will.test # => “hello”
  The test method is called in the example, Ruby first looks for the parent of the charlie.will object because it is an instance of the Employee class, and it has available a method called test, so this method is called. Things get more complicated however when the object is an instance of a class which has inherited from another class:  
  1. class Animal
  2.  def eats
  3.    “food”
  4.  end
  5.  def lives_in
  6.    “the wild”
  7.  end
  8. end
  9. class Pig < Animal
  10.  def lives_in
  11.    “farm”
  12.  end
  13. end
  14. babe = Pig.new
  15. babe.lives_in # => “farm”
  16. babe.eats # => “food”
  17. babe.thisdoesnotexist # => NoMethodError: undefined method `thisdoesnotexist’ for #<Pig:0x16a53c8>
In the above example, mixed inheritance is introduced. Methods defined higher in the inheritance chain needs to be considered by Ruby. When babe.lives_in is called Ruby first check the Pig class for the method, and it is called because it exists in the Pig class.
But if babe.eats method is called the story would be different. Ruby first checks the Pig class for eats method, as it does not exist in it then ‘Animal’ class will be called. In our case, it will respond as eats method exists in Animal class so it will be called. The method babe.thisdoesnotexist will throw an exception NoMethodError because the method does not exist. It means method defined in the lowest level of inheritance chain will be called if the method doesn’t exist, and an exception will be raised.  

After going through the example, we have discovered that Ruby looks up each method as follows:

  1. Ask object’s parent class if it can respond to the method, call it if found.
  2. If it does not respond, call the next parent class, continue until you reach the top of the inheritance chain.
  3. If nothing in the inheritance chain responds to the method call, the method does not exist.

Introducing Singleton Method

Singleton class is designed to give you the hold on to Object Oriented programming. It allows you to create an object that inherits from other classes and call their methods. It specifically does it for a single object. It is also known as Eigenclass.
  1. greeting = “Hello World”
  2. def greeting.greet
  3.  self
  4. end
  • greeting.greet # => “Hello World”
On different thing you would notice here is ‘self’. The greeting.greet method has access to the entire object it has been attached to; in Ruby, it will be referred to that object as ‘self’. In this case, it refers to the String value we attached to it. If we had attached it to anything else, it would have returned that object.
greeting = “I like cheese”
  1. class << greeting
  2.  def greet
  3.    “hello! ” + self
  4.  end
  5. end
  • greeting.greet # => “hello! I like cheese”
Singleton class method allows you to add many methods at once without prefixing all the method names. This syntax also allows you to add anything you would add while declaring the class including attr_writer, attr_reader, and attr_accessor methods.

How does it work?

When you work on the singleton class, Ruby needs a way to add methods to the object we are adding to, something that language doesn’t allow. To do so it creates a new class which is called ‘singleton class’. This class is, made the parent of the object we are working on, given the method and changes instead. It is also made an instance of the previous parent of our object so that the inheritance chain remains unchanged:

some object instance > singleton class > parent class > … > Object/BasicObject

Singleton class add one more step to the Ruby lookup method. Now Ruby looks up in the following way-
  1. Ask the object if its singleton class can respond to the method, calling it if found.
  2. Ask object’s parent class if it can respond to the method, call it if found.
  3. If it does not respond, call the next parent class, continue until you reach the top of the inheritance chain.
  4. If nothing in the inheritance chain responds to the method call, the method does not exist.
Not only can objects gain methods from their inherited classes, but now they can also gain individually unique methods as the program is running.

Putting metaprogramming to work with instance_eval and class_eval

Singleton classes are definitely helpful, but if you want to work with objects dynamically you need to be able to re-open them at runtime within other functions. Ruby does not allow you to have any class statements within a function syntactically, but instance-eval helps to do this. This method is defined in standard Kernel module of Ruby and allows you to add instance methods to an object just like our singleton class syntax.
  1. foo = “bar”
  2. foo.instance_eval do
  3.  def hi
  4.    “you smell”
  5.  end
  6. end
  • foo.hi # => “you smell”
The instance_eval method can take a block to evaluate, which can be used to define new methods as if you are writing a class. These methods will be added to the singleton class of the object.
The methods defined by instance_eval will be insurance methods. You cannot add attr_accessor to an instance method; to do so you need to operate on the class of the object instead of using class_eval:  
  1. bar = “foo”
  2. bar.class.class_eval do
  3.  def hello
  4.    “I can smell you from here”
  5.  end
  6. end
  • bar.hello # => “I can smell you from here”
Although instance_eval and class_eval are quite similar, their scope and application are slightly different. But you can remember which one to use in each situation by keeping in mind that instance methods are made by instance_eval while class methods are made by class_eval.  


After reading all this, you must be still wondering what and where is metaprogramming? Coming back to the point, metaprogramming allows you to create more flexible code, be it through beautiful APIs or easily testable code. Moreover, it also allows you to do that using powerful programming techniques and syntax. IT allows you to create DRY, highly reusable and extremely concise code.